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Altes Militär Fernglas um 1910 von Carl Zeiss Jena D. F. 6 x

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Verkäufer: kunstsammler37 (490) 100%, Artikelstandort: Weilheim, Versand nach: Worldwide, Artikelnummer: 352173992796 Biete altes Altes Militär Fernglas Um 1910 Um Carl Zeiss Jena D.F. 6 x Nr. 732060 Seltene Rarität für Sammler In einem gebrauchten ZustandDie Linsen haben keine Kratzer, beide Okulare sind klar und Sie haben eine gute Sicht.leichter abrieb am Gehäuse, Abplatzer am einstellrad der Optik siehe Bild . Es läst sich alles drehen . - body is galled - in lens are a littel bit dust and on lens a In diesem Zustand ist das Fernglas eine Rarität und ein MUSS für jeden Sammler. Versand für Europa und Weltweit auf Anfrage Shipping for Europe and world-wide on request Falls Fragen - bitte vorab klären. Danke!!! Gerne sende ich auf Anfrage hochauflösende Bilder und nähere Infos zu !!!Porto gegen Vorkasse und als versicherter Versand 7,50 € innerhalb Deutschland , EU und Ausland auf AnfrageAnderen Auktionen beachten u. Porto sparen.Hinweis: Ich bin kein Händler, sondern nach BGB eine Privatperson und schließe hiermit die nach neuem EU-Recht vorgeschriebene Garantie und Umtauschrecht von einem Jahr auf alle hier angebotenen Produkte aus. Die Angaben über den angebotenen Artikel sind nach bestem Wissen und Gewissen gemacht worden. Mit Abgabe eines Gebots nimmt der Bieter den Haftungsauschluss und die AGB von eBay an und akzeptiert, dass es sich bei einer Auktion um eine Versteigerung im Sinne des § 3 Abs. 5 des Fernabsatzgesetzes handelt und dem Höchstbietenden kein Widerrufsrecht gemäß dem Fernabsatzgesetz zusteht. Da es sich um einen Privatverkauf handelt, gehen Sie mit der Abgabe eines Gebotes eine Kaufverpflichtung ein und verzichten auf jegliche Garantie und Gewährleistung, sowie Rückgabe und Umtausch Viel Spass beim Bieten Firmen Histery als kleine Info: Carl Zeiss ist eines der weltweit bekanntesten Unternehmen der feinmechanisch – optischen Industrie. Sitz der Konzernleitung ist heute Oberkochen. Der aus Weimar stammende Mechaniker-Meister Carl Zeiss eröffnete 1846 eine feinmechanisch-optische Werkstatt in der Neugasse 7 in Jena. Hierfür erhielt er eine „Großherzogliche Konzession zur Fertigung und zum Verkauf mechanischer und optischer Instrumente“. 1847 stellte er August Löber als seinen ersten Lehrling ein, der später Werksmeister bei Zeiss wurde. Ende des Jahres wurden bereits die ersten einfachen Mikroskope in der Werkstatt gefertigt. 1852 beschäftigte Zeiss zehn Mitarbeiter. Der 1860 zum Universitätsmechanikus ernannte Carl Zeiss war mit der Qualität seiner Mikroskope nicht zufrieden. Jedes Mikroskop war ein Unikat. Man hatte zwar große Übung darin, Linsen durch Probieren (Pröbeln) zu einem vollständigen Mikroskop zusammenzustellen, es gab aber keine Möglichkeit, die Eigenschaften eines Mikroskops vorauszuberechnen und gezielt zu optimieren. Der Mathematiker Friedrich Wilhelm Barfuß versuchte zwischen 1850 und 1854, Mikroskop-Optiken zu berechnen, um so die Grundlagen für einen wissenschaftlichen Mikroskopbau zu schaffen. Er hatte jedoch keinen Erfolg. Zeiss arbeitete deshalb ab 1866 mit Ernst Abbe, einem Physikprofessor der Universität, zusammen. Diesem gelang es nach jahrelanger Arbeit und Rückschlägen, eine Theorie der Mikroskop-Optik aufzustellen. Als weltweit einzige Firma war Carl Zeiss nun in der Lage, Mikroskope mit vorberechneten Eigenschaften zu produzieren. Damit begann eine einzigartige Erfolgsgeschichte. Bereits 1875 beschäftigte Carl Zeiss 60 Mitarbeiter. Im Jahr seines Todes, 1888, waren es bereits 327. Ein wichtiges Problem, die gleichbleibende Qualität des Glases, konnte aber von Zeiss und Abbe nicht gelöst werden. Sie holten deshalb den Chemiker Otto Schott nach Jena. Nach erfolgreichen Glasschmelzversuchen für das Unternehmen Carl Zeiss baute Schott ein Werk für optische Gläser in Jena auf. 1875 entschloss sich Carl Zeiss, seinem Freund Ernst Abbe die Teilhaberschaft an der Firma anzubieten. Als Kommanditist setzte Ernst Abbe nun einen großen Teil seiner Arbeitskraft für das Unternehmen ein. Roderich Zeiss, der älteste Sohn von Carl Zeiss, trat ein Jahr später ebenfalls in das Unternehmen ein. Carl Zeiss starb 1888 und hinterließ ein bedeutendes Unternehmen mit glänzenden Perspektiven. Spannungen um die Unternehmernachfolge löste Abbe durch die Umwandlung des Unternehmens in ein Stiftungsunternehmen. Ab 1891/96 gehörte das Unternehmen der neu gegründeten Carl Zeiss Stiftung. Es war über Stiftungsorgane an staatliche Kontrollinstitutionen des Landes Sachsen Weimar Eisenach gebunden. Das operative Geschäft lag in den Händen einer vierköpfigen Geschäftsleitung, der bis 1903 Abbe als Stiftungsbevollmächtigter vorstand. Vor dem Ersten Weltkrieg erlebte das Unternehmen einen rasanten Aufstieg, der auch mit Ausbruch des Ersten Weltkrieges nicht nachließ. In beiden Weltkriegen gehörte das Unternehmen zu den wichtigsten deutschen Produzenten von rüstungs- und kriegsrelevanten Gütern. Carl Zeiss - A History Of A Most Respected Name In Optics. From its inception through to the middle 19th century, lens making was a craft that was essentially passed on from generation to generation. Innovations had typically resulted from trial and error experimentation; this was a costly and time consuming process that could not factor in all of the possible variables in lens making materials and design. It would be left up to one who could employ scientific methods of study, and then devise the mathematical formulas to characterize the physics of optics to make the next important technological leaps possible. It would then be asked of a chemist to invent and manufacture those raw materials necessary to make the new designs possible. And it would be one man to bring this combination together to create a concern of unrivaled accomplishment. Carl Friedrich Zeiss (b. 11 September 1816 in Weimar - d. 3 December 1888 in Jena) grew up apprenticed in the shop of Dr. Friedrich Körner, becoming well familiar with the operation of fine tools and machinery to make microscopes and scientific instruments. Körner was a machinist who provided such instruments to the German court. Zeiss attended lectures at the University of Jena where he studied mathematics, physics, anthropology, mineralogy, and optics. He traveled as a journeyman for some years and completed his practicals at the Physiological Institute in Jena under Professor Schleiden. On 10 May 1846 Carl Zeiss submitted the required application to the Weimar authority requesting permission to open a mechanical workshop. After this was approved Carl Zeiss opened on 17 November 1846 at Neugasse 7, Jena on the Saale River in the district of Thuringia in Germany for the production of simple microscopes, measuring instruments, and other precise optical and mechanical instruments. In the first year of operation he sold twenty-three microscopes, not bad considering the state of the economy and his not being well known at the time. In September 1847 Zeiss moved to a larger facility at Wagnergasse 32 and hired his first apprentice. Among his customers was the University of Jena for whom he made and repairs scientific equipment. Zeiss began to make improvements in microscopes, offering simple microscopes and in 1857 introducing the first compound microscope (employing an objective and an eyepiece), the "Stand I". In 1861 Zeiss compound microscopes are declared to be "among the most excellent instruments made in Germany" and he is awarded a Gold medal at the Thuringian Industrial Exhibition. By 1864 the need for more space for the equipment and some 200 employees results in another move of the workshop to a third larger site at Johannisplatz 10. In 1866 the 1000th microscope is delivered; the Carl Zeiss shop is recognized throughout European scientific circles for the quality of its microscopes. Up to this time advances in optical designs and materials relied heavily on inefficient trail and error efforts. Realizing that the improvement of optical instruments demanded advances in optical theory (Zeiss noted "the only remaining function of the working hand should be that of precisely implementing the forms and dimensions of all construction elements as determined by the design computation"), Zeiss engaged Ernst Abbe (b. 23 January 1840 - d. 14 January 1905 in Jena) as a free-lance research worker when he was a 26 years young lecturer of physics and mathematics at the University of Jena. It was Abbe who would become Zeiss partner and help launch the name Zeiss into the stratosphere of optics. Many of those who would become the most successful minds in optics were taught at the University at Jena, and then employed at the Zeiss Works. Ernst Abbe was without doubt a most gifted individual whose accomplishments place him in that rare category of person who can be said to have a profound impact on the rapid evolution of many optical theories and products. Abbe grew up in poverty, his father worked as much as sixteen hours a day to support his family. Abbe earned his way through school by gaining scholarships, and with some assistance from his father's employer. As an undergraduate Abbe studied physics and mathematics at the University of Jena. He went to graduate school at the University of Göttingen where he received a Doctorate in thermodynamics. In 1863 Abbe joined the faculty at the University of Jena where he lectured on physics, and later where he would serve his professorship. Introduced to Carl Zeiss in 1866, Abbe became very interested in the optical challenges facing microscopy. Late in 1866 Zeiss and Abbe formed a partnership where Abbe became the director of research of the Zeiss Optical Works. Abbe laid out the framework of what would become the modern computational optics development approach. By 1869 their work produced a new patented illumination device, which provide illumination of the objects studied under a microscope in a manner superior to that of previous systems. Among Abbe's most significant breakthroughs was the formulation in 1872 of what a wave theory of microscopic imaging that became known as the "Abbe Sine Condition". This approach made possible the development of a new range of seventeen microscope objectives - three of these were of the immersion type, all were designed based on mathematical modeling. In Abbe's words "based on a precise study of the materials used, the designs concerned are specified by computation to the last detail - every curvature, every thickness, every aperture of a lens - so that any trial and error approach is excluded." As mentioned above, before Carl Zeiss and Ernst Abbe, lenses were made by trial and error. However, these objectives were the first lenses ever made that were designed based on sound optical theory considering the laws of physics. The comparatively high performance of the new Zeiss microscope objectives earned for the company international acclaim as an innovator capable of devising high performance optical products. In 1881 Carl Zeiss son Roderich would become a co-partner in the Zeiss concerns. Otto Schott (b. 17 December 1851 Witten - d. 27 August 1935) grew up in a family that introduced him to making window glass, his father became a co-owner of a glassworks in Westphalia in 1853. He became the father of modern glass science and technology. Schott left home after gaining a masterly understanding of the state of the art to study chemical technology at the technical college in Aachen, and later at the universities of Wijrzbur and Leipzig. Schott later earned his Doctorate at the University of Jena in 1875 for his work about defects in window glass manufacturing. In late 1879, Schott wrote to Ernst Abbe describing his success in devising a technique to formulate a new glass that incorporated lithium, and later Schott sent a sample of this glass to Abbe. Schott's work in his native town of Witten had by 1881 resulted in glass products with optical properties and degrees of purity and uniformity that up to that time had been unknown. On 4 January 1881 Schott met with Dr. Abbe who encouraged Schott to employ a scientific approach to the determination of raw ingredients to be used in glass formulations, and the development of manufacturing techniques of what would lead to the development of more than one hundred new types of optical and industrial glasses. Together Schott and Abbe would also work to improve the raw materials mixing and glass annealing processes. In 1882 Schott moved to a new glass-making laboratory set up for him in Jena. Shott joined Carl Zeiss to form the firm then known as Schott and Associates Glass Technology Laboratory, in Jena, Germany in 1884. Also in 1884 Schot together with Carl and Roderich Zeiss and Ernst Abbe founded the Schott & Genossen Glaswerke based at Mainz to develop new types of optical and heat resistant glass, and he investigated the use of natural crystals (Calcium Fluorite, etc.). Schott developed many new glass types, a number of which are still in use including Borosilicate Crown, also known as BK. Schotts glass innovation made possible the introduction by Zeiss in 1886 of the first "Apochromat" lens. His company pioneered not only new glass types but new uses, including "Jenare Glass" a domestic glassware line, and glassware for laboratory and industrial uses. He would become involved with social concerns, being elected to city council of Jena where he served from 1896 to 1899. Schott retired from his day to day activities in the glass works in 1926. This collaboration resulted in the Jena Glass Works of Schott becoming the prime source of glass and filter materials for Zeiss products. This research and development effort bore its first noteworthy fruit in 1886 when Zeiss marketed the first "aphochromate" microscope objectives; this apochromatic microscope objective offered superior quality. Employing "fluorspar" elements this was the first use of crystal in an industrial optical application. Zeiss now employs 250 workmen, and delivers its 10,000th microscope! Carl Zeiss lives to see this breakthrough, but soon after he dies on 3 December 1888. Abbe was interested in improving academic and research resources. His efforts resulted in the establishment of the Institutes for Applied Physics and Applied Chemistry at the University of Jena. Abbe was also interested in social reforms culminating in the formation in 1889 of the "Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung" (something akin to a foundation) to operate the various Zeiss concerns, with a mission to ensure the Zeiss firm follows the social vision of its founders. By 1900, the employment benefits at Zeiss were uncommonly good in their day; these included an eight-hour work day, paid holidays, some forms of health benefits, profit-sharing, and a retirement plan. It is our understanding that one provision of the Stiftung Statutes was that the top salaries at Zeiss could not exceed the average income of the workers by more than a factor of ten. Such concerns of employees' well being was rare at the time, but it was returned to the company with increased employee loyalty and by attracting better-qualified candidates for employment. The original constitution of the Stiftung provides that the profits of the Zeiss firms finance growth and stability of the firms. The rest of the profits go to the foundation which makes grants for scientific research, cultural activities, and employee benefits programs. In 1891 Abbe and Roderich Zeiss bequeathed his shares in the Zeiss Optical Works factory and the Schott Glassworks to the "Stiftung". In 1919 Schott also added his shares in the Glass Works to the foundation. Among the first notable optical accomplishments by the Zeiss works were that by 1870 Abbe had independently reinvented image erecting Porro prisms (sometimes referred to as the "Porro-Abbe" design), and by 1873 a prototype instrument had been completed. However, due to the limitations imposed by available crown glass at the time Abbe did not proceed much further until later. The original prism design was developed by an Italian Ignazio Porro (1801-1875). By 1888 Schott improved the optical characteristics of Crown glass such that Abbe resurrected an earlier project, by 1893 he had created and patented (back dated to July 9 at the German Imperial Patent Office) a 8x 20mm "binocular telescope with increased objective separation". The significant improvements over then competing designs being that he employed the improved glass prisms in an air spaced fashion in the form of the now traditional Porro binocular permitting a wider separation of the doublet objective lenses thereby resulting in markedly improved depth perception. This patent remained in force until 1908. The mass production of prism binoculars by Zeiss then began in 1894. In 1892 Horatio S. Greenough, an American biologist suggested a promising concept for Abbe so that by the end of 1897 the first stereomicroscope ever made providing true three-dimensional views was completed at Zeiss. Franz A. Meyer (b. 6 June 1868 Hamburg, d. 29 May 1933 Jena) became in 1903 the first college educated engineer employed at the Optical Workshops at Jena; a person of his qualifications was deemed necessary by Abbe for the design and construction of large astronomical instruments although he played part in many other areas of production at Jena. By the end of the century Zeiss had negotiated limited partnerships with overseas companies including "Bausch and Lomb" of Rochester, N.Y., an American firm to make complementary products, or Zeiss products under license. Sometimes having a product made within the country where it would be sold could bypass expensive tariffs; for example the U.S. federal government relied mostly on income from import tariffs prior to the introduction of the Income Tax in 1913. By 1900 Zeiss employs 1,070 people. In 1903 Abbe retired from active management due to ill health, he would die on 14 January 1905 and was then succeeded by Prof. Dr. Siegfried Czapski. Carl Zeiss employed a number of persons whose names have become familiar to those who use optical instruments. Among them is Albert Koenig (b. August 1871, d. April 1946) who as a student of mathematics and physics at the Universities of Jena and Berlin became acquainted with Dr. Abbe. Albert Koenig came to work for Zeiss Jena in October 1894, and by 1895 he completed the work for his Ph.D. After his arrival at Zeiss Koenig promoted quickly to become responsible for leading a design team which would develop numerous optical systems including eyepieces, prisms, and telescopic objectives. The most notable of his astronomical telescope achievements may be the designing of the Zeiss "B-Objektiv" (Type B Objective), design an f15 air-spaced triplet apochromat. Made in apertures of from 60 mm to 200 mm, the Type B was the first refractive telescope objective to achieve such a high degree of perfection of color correction and of spherical aberration and it remained well regarded from the turn of the century until World War II. From the turn of the century, he became head of the department at Zeiss that developed terrestrial telescopes, binoculars, long distance microscopes, range finding and measuring instruments. Koenig was responsible for the development of new ocular designs, some which featured apparent fields of view of up to ninety degrees. And his eyepiece designs over the years included several lens arrangements: combinations of singlet and doublet lenses, of varying glass types, etc. And although there are some contemporary makers who advertise a "Koenig Eyepiece", this is in fact not a design that is known as having one particular lens arrangement. Those represented as a "Koenig Eyepiece" tend to be wide-angle designs of from 65 to 70 degree apparent field of view, and these work best when used with telescopes of longer focal ratios. His remains one of the more remarkable careers in optics, spanning some 52 years with Zeiss, achieving noteworthy patents in terms of quantity and of quality. Koenig was a man of remarkable intellect and with management style ideally suited to achievement in his times. Another famous Zeiss employee was Heinrich Erfle (b. 1884 - d. 1923) who in 1917 Patented a practical design for a wide angle ocular that since 1918 has appeared in many binoculars and telescopes. Before the turn of the century management adopted a policy that most common Zeiss products would bear code names that clearly identified the product, this would facilitate cabling information and the placing of orders. By 1902 Carl Zeiss was pioneering new advances with camera lenses, introducing names that remain respected today by the modern descendants such as the "Tessar", a lens introduced in 1902 that was marketed as the "eagle's eye". While first commercial Zeiss binocular made were the 4x 11 mm and 6 x 15mm models introduced in 1894 and total production numbered 205 according to Zeiss records. By the beginning of World War I Zeiss had developed a total of about fifty-nine models of hand held binocular for consumer and military use. With serial numbers up to about 30,600 by 1900 sales soon skyrocketed to over 200,000 by 1910, and by 1914 their serial numbers approached 500,000. A consumer 12 x 40 might carry a designation "Teleduz", while the military contract version carries a "D.F. 12x40" designation for example. Between 1907 and 1914 Zeiss listed at least five 6x 30 mm binoculars in production: "Jagdglas", "Silvarem", "Silvamar", "Maringlas", and a military "D.F. 6x20" with the D.F. indicating Doppelfernrohr (literally "far from double pipe"). Giant binoculars of 60mm, 80mm and even 110mm aperture introduced for the consumer market in the 1920's bore the names "Starmorbi", "Asembi", "Asenglar". One particular 80mm telescope with an alt-azimuth stand, fitted wood storage case, and accessories bore the name "Asestaron", while the same telescope on another mount would bear another name. By the end of World War II, Zeiss would have produced some 2,260,000 binoculars for military and civilian use! Carl Zeiss - A History Of A Most Respected Name In Optics. From its inception through to the middle 19th century, lens making was a craft that was essentially passed on from generation to generation. Innovations had typically resulted from trial and error experimentation; this was a costly and time consuming process that could not factor in all of the possible variables in lens making materials and design. It would be left up to one who could employ scientific methods of study, and then devise the mathematical formulas to characterize the physics of optics to make the next important technological leaps possible. It would then be asked of a chemist to invent and manufacture those raw materials necessary to make the new designs possible. And it would be one man to bring this combination together to create a concern of unrivaled accomplishment. Carl Friedrich Zeiss (b. 11 September 1816 in Weimar - d. 3 December 1888 in Jena) grew up apprenticed in the shop of Dr. Friedrich Körner, becoming well familiar with the operation of fine tools and machinery to make microscopes and scientific instruments. Körner was a machinist who provided such instruments to the German court. Zeiss attended lectures at the University of Jena where he studied mathematics, physics, anthropology, mineralogy, and optics. He traveled as a journeyman for some years and completed his practicals at the Physiological Institute in Jena under Professor Schleiden. On 10 May 1846 Carl Zeiss submitted the required application to the Weimar authority requesting permission to open a mechanical workshop. After this was approved Carl Zeiss opened on 17 November 1846 at Neugasse 7, Jena on the Saale River in the district of Thuringia in Germany for the production of simple microscopes, measuring instruments, and other precise optical and mechanical instruments. In the first year of operation he sold twenty-three microscopes, not bad considering the state of the economy and his not being well known at the time. In September 1847 Zeiss moved to a larger facility at Wagnergasse 32 and hired his first apprentice. Among his customers was the University of Jena for whom he made and repairs scientific equipment. Zeiss began to make improvements in microscopes, offering simple microscopes and in 1857 introducing the first compound microscope (employing an objective and an eyepiece), the "Stand I". In 1861 Zeiss compound microscopes are declared to be "among the most excellent instruments made in Germany" and he is awarded a Gold medal at the Thuringian Industrial Exhibition. By 1864 the need for more space for the equipment and some 200 employees results in another move of the workshop to a third larger site at Johannisplatz 10. In 1866 the 1000th microscope is delivered; the Carl Zeiss shop is recognized throughout European scientific circles for the quality of its microscopes. Up to this time advances in optical designs and materials relied heavily on inefficient trail and error efforts. Realizing that the improvement of optical instruments demanded advances in optical theory (Zeiss noted "the only remaining function of the working hand should be that of precisely implementing the forms and dimensions of all construction elements as determined by the design computation"), Zeiss engaged Ernst Abbe (b. 23 January 1840 - d. 14 January 1905 in Jena) as a free-lance research worker when he was a 26 years young lecturer of physics and mathematics at the University of Jena. It was Abbe who would become Zeiss partner and help launch the name Zeiss into the stratosphere of optics. Many of those who would become the most successful minds in optics were taught at the University at Jena, and then employed at the Zeiss Works. Ernst Abbe was without doubt a most gifted individual whose accomplishments place him in that rare category of person who can be said to have a profound impact on the rapid evolution of many optical theories and products. Abbe grew up in poverty, his father worked as much as sixteen hours a day to support his family. Abbe earned his way through school by gaining scholarships, and with some assistance from his father's employer. As an undergraduate Abbe studied physics and mathematics at the University of Jena. He went to graduate school at the University of Göttingen where he received a Doctorate in thermodynamics. In 1863 Abbe joined the faculty at the University of Jena where he lectured on physics, and later where he would serve his professorship. Introduced to Carl Zeiss in 1866, Abbe became very interested in the optical challenges facing microscopy. Late in 1866 Zeiss and Abbe formed a partnership where Abbe became the director of research of the Zeiss Optical Works. Abbe laid out the framework of what would become the modern computational optics development approach. By 1869 their work produced a new patented illumination device, which provide illumination of the objects studied under a microscope in a manner superior to that of previous systems. Among Abbe's most significant breakthroughs was the formulation in 1872 of what a wave theory of microscopic imaging that became known as the "Abbe Sine Condition". This approach made possible the development of a new range of seventeen microscope objectives - three of these were of the immersion type, all were designed based on mathematical modeling. In Abbe's words "based on a precise study of the materials used, the designs concerned are specified by computation to the last detail - every curvature, every thickness, every aperture of a lens - so that any trial and error approach is excluded." As mentioned above, before Carl Zeiss and Ernst Abbe, lenses were made by trial and error. However, these objectives were the first lenses ever made that were designed based on sound optical theory considering the laws of physics. The comparatively high performance of the new Zeiss microscope objectives earned for the company international acclaim as an innovator capable of devising high performance optical products. In 1881 Carl Zeiss son Roderich would become a co-partner in the Zeiss concerns. Otto Schott (b. 17 December 1851 Witten - d. 27 August 1935) grew up in a family that introduced him to making window glass, his father became a co-owner of a glassworks in Westphalia in 1853. He became the father of modern glass science and technology. Schott left home after gaining a masterly understanding of the state of the art to study chemical technology at the technical college in Aachen, and later at the universities of Wijrzbur and Leipzig. Schott later earned his Doctorate at the University of Jena in 1875 for his work about defects in window glass manufacturing. In late 1879, Schott wrote to Ernst Abbe describing his success in devising a technique to formulate a new glass that incorporated lithium, and later Schott sent a sample of this glass to Abbe. Schott's work in his native town of Witten had by 1881 resulted in glass products with optical properties and degrees of purity and uniformity that up to that time had been unknown. On 4 January 1881 Schott met with Dr. Abbe who encouraged Schott to employ a scientific approach to the determination of raw ingredients to be used in glass formulations, and the development of manufacturing techniques of what would lead to the development of more than one hundred new types of optical and industrial glasses. Together Schott and Abbe would also work to improve the raw materials mixing and glass annealing processes. In 1882 Schott moved to a new glass-making laboratory set up for him in Jena. Shott joined Carl Zeiss to form the firm then known as Schott and Associates Glass Technology Laboratory, in Jena, Germany in 1884. Also in 1884 Schot together with Carl and Roderich Zeiss and Ernst Abbe founded the Schott & Genossen Glaswerke based at Mainz to develop new types of optical and heat resistant glass, and he investigated the use of natural crystals (Calcium Fluorite, etc.). Schott developed many new glass types, a number of which are still in use including Borosilicate Crown, also known as BK. Schotts glass innovation made possible the introduction by Zeiss in 1886 of the first "Apochromat" lens. His company pioneered not only new glass types but new uses, including "Jenare Glass" a domestic glassware line, and glassware for laboratory and industrial uses. He would become involved with social concerns, being elected to city council of Jena where he served from 1896 to 1899. Schott retired from his day to day activities in the glass works in 1926. This collaboration resulted in the Jena Glass Works of Schott becoming the prime source of glass and filter materials for Zeiss products. This research and development effort bore its first noteworthy fruit in 1886 when Zeiss marketed the first "aphochromate" microscope objectives; this apochromatic microscope objective offered superior quality. Employing "fluorspar" elements this was the first use of crystal in an industrial optical application. Zeiss now employs 250 workmen, and delivers its 10,000th microscope! Carl Zeiss lives to see this breakthrough, but soon after he dies on 3 December 1888. Abbe was interested in improving academic and research resources. His efforts resulted in the establishment of the Institutes for Applied Physics and Applied Chemistry at the University of Jena. Abbe was also interested in social reforms culminating in the formation in 1889 of the "Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung" (something akin to a foundation) to operate the various Zeiss concerns, with a mission to ensure the Zeiss firm follows the social vision of its founders. By 1900, the employment benefits at Zeiss were uncommonly good in their day; these included an eight-hour work day, paid holidays, some forms of health benefits, profit-sharing, and a retirement plan. It is our understanding that one provision of the Stiftung Statutes was that the top salaries at Zeiss could not exceed the average income of the workers by more than a factor of ten. Such concerns of employees' well being was rare at the time, but it was returned to the company with increased employee loyalty and by attracting better-qualified candidates for employment. The original constitution of the Stiftung provides that the profits of the Zeiss firms finance growth and stability of the firms. The rest of the profits go to the foundation which makes grants for scientific research, cultural activities, and employee benefits programs. In 1891 Abbe and Roderich Zeiss bequeathed his shares in the Zeiss Optical Works factory and the Schott Glassworks to the "Stiftung". In 1919 Schott also added his shares in the Glass Works to the foundation. Among the first notable optical accomplishments by the Zeiss works were that by 1870 Abbe had independently reinvented image erecting Porro prisms (sometimes referred to as the "Porro-Abbe" design), and by 1873 a prototype instrument had been completed. However, due to the limitations imposed by available crown glass at the time Abbe did not proceed much further until later. The original prism design was developed by an Italian Ignazio Porro (1801-1875). By 1888 Schott improved the optical characteristics of Crown glass such that Abbe resurrected an earlier project, by 1893 he had created and patented (back dated to July 9 at the German Imperial Patent Office) a 8x 20mm "binocular telescope with increased objective separation". The significant improvements over then competing designs being that he employed the improved glass prisms in an air spaced fashion in the form of the now traditional Porro binocular permitting a wider separation of the doublet objective lenses thereby resulting in markedly improved depth perception. This patent remained in force until 1908. The mass production of prism binoculars by Zeiss then began in 1894. In 1892 Horatio S. Greenough, an American biologist suggested a promising concept for Abbe so that by the end of 1897 the first stereomicroscope ever made providing true three-dimensional views was completed at Zeiss. Franz A. Meyer (b. 6 June 1868 Hamburg, d. 29 May 1933 Jena) became in 1903 the first college educated engineer employed at the Optical Workshops at Jena; a person of his qualifications was deemed necessary by Abbe for the design and construction of large astronomical instruments although he played part in many other areas of production at Jena. By the end of the century Zeiss had negotiated limited partnerships with overseas companies including "Bausch and Lomb" of Rochester, N.Y., an American firm to make complementary products, or Zeiss products under license. Sometimes having a product made within the country where it would be sold could bypass expensive tariffs; for example the U.S. federal government relied mostly on income from import tariffs prior to the introduction of the Income Tax in 1913. By 1900 Zeiss employs 1,070 people. In 1903 Abbe retired from active management due to ill health, he would die on 14 January 1905 and was then succeeded by Prof. Dr. Siegfried Czapski. Carl Zeiss employed a number of persons whose names have become familiar to those who use optical instruments. Among them is Albert Koenig (b. August 1871, d. April 1946) who as a student of mathematics and physics at the Universities of Jena and Berlin became acquainted with Dr. Abbe. Albert Koenig came to work for Zeiss Jena in October 1894, and by 1895 he completed the work for his Ph.D. After his arrival at Zeiss Koenig promoted quickly to become responsible for leading a design team which would develop numerous optical systems including eyepieces, prisms, and telescopic objectives. The most notable of his astronomical telescope achievements may be the designing of the Zeiss "B-Objektiv" (Type B Objective), design an f15 air-spaced triplet apochromat. Made in apertures of from 60 mm to 200 mm, the Type B was the first refractive telescope objective to achieve such a high degree of perfection of color correction and of spherical aberration and it remained well regarded from the turn of the century until World War II. From the turn of the century, he became head of the department at Zeiss that developed terrestrial telescopes, binoculars, long distance microscopes, range finding and measuring instruments. Koenig was responsible for the development of new ocular designs, some which featured apparent fields of view of up to ninety degrees. And his eyepiece designs over the years included several lens arrangements: combinations of singlet and doublet lenses, of varying glass types, etc. And although there are some contemporary makers who advertise a "Koenig Eyepiece", this is in fact not a design that is known as having one particular lens arrangement. Those represented as a "Koenig Eyepiece" tend to be wide-angle designs of from 65 to 70 degree apparent field of view, and these work best when used with telescopes of longer focal ratios. His remains one of the more remarkable careers in optics, spanning some 52 years with Zeiss, achieving noteworthy patents in terms of quantity and of quality. Koenig was a man of remarkable intellect and with management style ideally suited to achievement in his times. Another famous Zeiss employee was Heinrich Erfle (b. 1884 - d. 1923) who in 1917 Patented a practical design for a wide angle ocular that since 1918 has appeared in many binoculars and telescopes. Before the turn of the century management adopted a policy that most common Zeiss products would bear code names that clearly identified the product, this would facilitate cabling information and the placing of orders. By 1902 Carl Zeiss was pioneering new advances with camera lenses, introducing names that remain respected today by the modern descendants such as the "Tessar", a lens introduced in 1902 that was marketed as the "eagle's eye". While first commercial Zeiss binocular made were the 4x 11 mm and 6 x 15mm models introduced in 1894 and total production numbered 205 according to Zeiss records. By the beginning of World War I Zeiss had developed a total of about fifty-nine models of hand held binocular for consumer and military use. With serial numbers up to about 30,600 by 1900 sales soon skyrocketed to over 200,000 by 1910, and by 1914 their serial numbers approached 500,000. A consumer 12 x 40 might carry a designation "Teleduz", while the military contract version carries a "D.F. 12x40" designation for example. Between 1907 and 1914 Zeiss listed at least five 6x 30 mm binoculars in production: "Jagdglas", "Silvarem", "Silvamar", "Maringlas", and a military "D.F. 6x20" with the D.F. indicating Doppelfernrohr (literally "far from double pipe"). Giant binoculars of 60mm, 80mm and even 110mm aperture introduced for the consumer market in the 1920's bore the names "Starmorbi", "Asembi", "Asenglar". One particular 80mm telescope with an alt-azimuth stand, fitted wood storage case, and accessories bore the name "Asestaron", while the same telescope on another mount would bear another name. By the end of World War II, Zeiss would have produced some 2,260,000 binoculars for military and civilian use! Marke: Carl Zeiss

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